Liquefied petroleum gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or gas), also known as simply propane or butane, inflammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, kitchen equipment and vehicles.

It is increasingly being used as an aerosol propellant and refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a fuel it is often referred to as autogas.

Gas grades bought and sold include mixes that are mostly propane (C3H8), mostly butane (C4H10), and usually mixtures, propane and butane. In the northern hemisphere, winter blends contain more propane, while in summer they contain more butane. In the United States, mainly two grades of gas are sold: propane and HD-5. These data are published by the Gas Processors Association (GPA) and the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM). Propane / butane blends are also listed in these specifications

Propylene, butylenes and other hydrocarbons, as a rule, are also present in low concentrations. HD-5 limits the amount of propylene oxide that can be placed in gas at 5%, and is used as autogas in the specification. A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added so that a leak can be detected. The internationally recognized European standard EN 589. In the United States, tetrahydrothiophene thiophane () or amyl mercaptan also approved odorants, although they are not currently used.

manufactured in 1910 by Walter Snelling, and the first commercial products appeared in 1912. It currently provides about 3% of the energy consumed, and burns, relatively clean, without soot and very little sulfur. It is a gas, it does not create mass or water pollution hazards, but it can cause air pollution. LPG has a typical specific heat of combustion of 46.1 MJ / kg, compared with 42.5 MJ / kg for fuel oil and 43.5 MJ / kg for premium gasoline (gasoline). However, the energy density per unit volume of 26 MJ / l is lower than that of gasoline and fuel oil, as its relative density is lower (about 0.5 - 0.58 kg / l, compared to 0.71-0 , 77 kg / l for gasoline).

As its boiling point is below room temperature, the POWER SUPPLY ECU of LIQUEFIED GAS will not remain a trace, quickly at normal temperatures and pressures, and is usually supplied in cylinders under the pressure of steel vessels. They are usually filled to 80-85% of their capacity for thermal expansion contains liquid. The ratio between the volumes of evaporated gas and liquefied gas varies depending on the composition, pressure and temperature, but usually about 250: 1. The pressure at which the gas goes into a liquid state, called its vapor pressure, also depends on the composition and temperature; for example, it is about 220 kilopascals (32 psi) for pure Butane at 20 ° C (68 ° F), and about 2,200 kilopascals (320 pounds per square inch) for pure propane at 55 ° C (131 ° F). GNS is heavier than air, unlike natural gas, and will thus run along floors and, as a rule, settle in low places, such as basements. There are two main threats to this. First, a possible explosion if the mixture of gas and air is within the limits and there is no source of ignition. Secondly, asphyxiation, due to gas displacing the air, causing a decrease in the concentration of oxygen.

Fuel oil is a low-grade heavy fuel oil used in generating plants and similar applications. In the United States and Western Europe, fuel oil is blended or broken, with the final product being diesel.

Fuel oil can be used to heat houses in the former USSR and in the countries of the Far East, which do not have the means to mix or decompose it into more traditional petrochemical products. In the West, stoves that burn fuel oil are commonly referred to as "waste oil" or "waste oil."

Fuel oil-100 is fuel oil, which is made according to GOST, for example GOST 10585-75, GOST 10585-99 Oil fuel. Mazut. Specifications (active, recent changes 07.01.2010). (GOST - the Russian system of standards, for example, ASTM or ANSI). Fuel oil is almost exclusively produced in the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. This product is usually used for large boilers in steam production, since the BTU content is high. The most important consideration (and not the only consideration) when sorting this fuel is the sulfur content, which is mainly influenced by the feedstock. For shipment purposes, this product is considered "dirty oil", and because viscosity drastically affects the ability to pump, delivery has unique requirements. Fuel oil is very similar to oil No. 6 and is part of the products left after gasoline and lighter components evaporate from crude oil.


The pipeline was built and operated by the Russian pipeline company Transneft.

Project goal: to increase the capacity of the ESPO pipeline system with the reconstruction of trunk pipelines that transport crude oil from Western Siberia to the city of Taishet, to ensure the transportation of oil for export to the People's Republic of China and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region through the port of Kozmino, as well as to oil refineries plants of the Russian Federation.


TransNeftoil offers a wide range of road bitumen products, available in almost all regions of Russia.

The company produces standard bitumen grades according to GOST 2245-90. Although the constant increase in the quality requirements of the road surface and the increase in the period of time between the general repairs of roads is an increase in the quality requirements for bitumen production processes. Currently, TransNeftoil is implementing a program to modernize all bitumen production facilities in accordance with the national standard GOST 33133-2014.

Observing the requirements of the key Russian consumer, in 2015 the Company released a new bitumen grade BNDU-85 according to the SC Avtodor STO 2.1-2011 standard.

In order to choose the right type of bitumen, it is necessary to take into account all climatic characteristics of the building and operational conditions of the road. The specialist of TransnNeftoil has developed a convenient tool for the selection of bitumen grades by region of the Russian Federation, taking into account the types of roads.


Jet A spec fuel has been used in the United States since the 1950s and is usually unavailable outside the United States and several Canadian airports, such as Toronto and Vancouver, while Jet A-1 is the standard fuel used in the rest of the world, except for the former Soviet republic where TS-1 is the most common standard. Both Jet A and Jet A-1 have a flash point above 38 ° C (100 ° F) at an auto-ignition temperature of 210 ° C (410 ° F).

Differences between Jet A and Jet A-1

The main difference lies in the lower freezing point A-1:
  • Jet A is -40 ° C (-40 ° F)
  • Jet A-1 is -47 ° C (-53 ° F)
  • Another difference is the mandatory addition of an antistatic additive to Jet A-1.
  • Jet trucks, storage tanks and plumbing carrying Jet A are marked with a black sticker that says "Jet A" printed in white next to another black stripe.

    Typical physical properties for Jet A and Jet A-1

    Jet A-1 fuel must comply with:
  • DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1),
  • ASTM D1655 (Jet A-1) specification and IATA manual material (kerosene type), NATO code F-35.
  • Reaction The fuel must comply with the specification ASTM D1655 (Jet A).


Heating value depends on the source of gas that is used, and the process used to liquefy the gas. The heating range can range by +/- 10 to 15 percent. The typical value of the highest calorific value LNG is about 50 MJ / kg or 21,500 BTU / lb. typical value of lower heating LNG cost is 45 MJ / kg or 19,350 BTU / lb.

For the purpose of comparing different types of fuel, the calorific value can be expressed in terms of energy per volume, which is known as the energy density in mJ / liter. The density of LNG is about 0.41 kg / l to 0.5 kg / l, depending on temperature, pressure and composition, compared with water at 1.0 kg / liter. Using an average cost of 0.45 kg / l, typical energy density values are 22.5 MJ / liter (based on higher heating) or 20.3 MJ / liter (based on lower heating).

The (volume) energy density of LNG is about 2.4 times higher than that of gas, which makes it ECONOMICAL for transporting natural gas on a ship in the form of LNG. LNG energy density can be compared with propane and ethanol, but only 60 percent diesel fuel and 70 percent in gasoline.


Bunker fuel or bunker oil is technically any type of fuel oil that is used on board ships. Named from tanks on ships and in the ports in which it is stored; these are bunker fuel tanks. Since the 1980s, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been the generally accepted standard for marine fuels (bunkers). The standard is numbered 8217 with the latest updates in 2005 and 2010. The standard divides the fuel into residual and distillate fuels. Suppliers of fuel for bunkers VD6 Our Lady of Bunker TransNeft OIL is reliable suppliers of fuel for petrochemical products and derivatives:
  • M100 / Mazut GOST 10585-75 / 99/2013
  • D6 Bunker Diesel Diesel
  • D2 Diesel fuel / EN 590 GOST R 52368-2005
  • D2 gas oil L0.2 / 62 GOST 305-82
  • Fuel Oil 380 CST
  • Jet fuel (JP54) / Aviation kerosene
  • # 95 octane
  • Crude oil (heavy and light)
  • Russian export blend of crude oil REBCO GOST 51858-2002
  • nozzle A1
  • LNG
  • LPG
  • D6 Standards and Classification of Diesel Fuel
  • CCAI and CII are two indices that describe the ignition quality of residual fuel oil, and CCAI is especially often calculated for marine fuels.

    Despite the fact that this marine fuel is still quoted in the international bunker markets with maximum viscosity (as set out in ISO 8217 - see below) due to the fact that marine engines are designed to use different fuel viscosities.

    The unit of viscosity used is centistokes, and the most commonly quoted fuel d6 is listed below in order of cost, the least expensive -
  • IFO 380 - Intermediate d6 diesel with a maximum viscosity of 380 centistokes
  • IFO 180 - Oil intermediate d6 with a maximum viscosity of 180 centistokes
  • LS 380 - low sulfur fuel oil (<1.5%) of intermediate d6 with a maximum viscosity of 380 centistokes
  • LS 180 - low-sulfur (<1.5%) intermediate diesel fuel d6 with a maximum viscosity of 180 centistokes
  • MDO - diesel engine oil.
  • MGO - marine gas oil.


JP54 is an abbreviation for "Jet Engine, A1, Colonial Grade 54". During the refining process, only 15% of crude oil is composed of JP54, the rest of the grade is used for various types of plastic. Designed by JP Morgan, the JP54 colonial class has been replaced by AVGAS, also known as AVGAS100LL, it is a low-sulfur kerosene used throughout the world. This is gasoline! JP54 provides gas turbine aircraft engines. Jet A and A-1 have specifications that can be used in fuel throughout the world. Jet B is used in cold weather elements. Typically, several different mixtures make up jet fuel, and this applies to flash points and how carbon numbers are distributed. In fact, most of the jet fuels exported from Russia, etc., are "JP54" or "Colonial JP54". It is similar to "Jet A", except that the specific energy is 18.4 md / kg compared with 42.8 mJ / kg "Jet A". There is also a slight difference in supplements. Jet fuels have many flavors. There are over 100 manual pages needed to describe them. However, all jet fuels belong to additives to A1, which allows the plane not to leave a white tail in the sky, showing where the plane was. Jet fuel is kerosene, not a distillate such as Gasoil / Diesel. At the refinery, it is separated over gasolines and paraffins. So, no airline will ever buy JP54, there is no trading table that will trade JP54, and you will not find an oil company that sells JP54. They will sell aviation fuel A1 according to the most common specifications, the most common, the Colonial Grade 54. There is no "ticket" on "JP54" on commodity exchanges so that you can see the market value of the product. No special temperature considerations. Remember that at an altitude of 40,000 feet, this is -46 degrees more or less, no matter where you are or what season. The only temperature problem is that when you fill a humid hot climate, the air that you take with you in the same tanks contains a lot of water that condenses and forms piercing ice crystals that will destroy the jet turbine. Airlines will fix this with additives, usually with fatty acids. Military grade jet fuel is produced in refineries and is supplied directly, as they will require special additives.


Urals oil is a reference oil brand used as a basis for pricing of the Russian export oil mixture. It is a mix of heavy sour oil of Urals and the Volga region with light oil of Western Siberia. Other reference oils are Brent, West Texas Intermediate and Dubai.

Urals brand oil is supplied through the Baku-Novorossiysk pipeline system and the Druzhba pipeline. Urals oil futures trade on Russian Trading System stock exchange. There was also an effort to trade it on NYMEX under the name of REBCO (Russian Export Blend Crude Oil); however, not a single trade was made.


Urals oil is a reference oil brand used as a basis for pricing of the Russian export oil mixture. It is a mix of heavy sour oil of Urals and the Volga region with light oil of Western Siberia. Other reference oils are Brent, West Texas Intermediate and Dubai.

Urals brand oil is supplied through the Baku-Novorossiysk pipeline system and the Druzhba pipeline. Urals oil futures trade on Russian Trading System stock exchange. There was also an effort to trade it on NYMEX under the name of REBCO (Russian Export Blend Crude Oil); however, not a single trade was made.


Oil gas is a group of petroleum distillation products having boiling points between kerosene and lubricating oil. The term originally referred to the product of oil gas works that was added to the product of coal gas works to produce improved illuminating gas.

Historically (c.1924) 40% of traditionally distilled crude oil would be Gas oil—”being too heavy to burn in wick fed lamps and not heavy enough to make lubricating oils”


EN 590 is a standard published by the European Committee for Standardization that describes the physical properties that all automotive diesel fuel must meet if it is to be sold in the European Union and several other European countries.

Based on 98/70/EG it allows the blending of up to 7% fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel with ‘conventional’ diesel – a 7:93 mix.

Many countries in Europe require diesel fuel to meet a specific class in winter times. In Central and Western Europe the Winter Diesel (Winterdiesel, diesel d’hiver) must meet Class F conditions at least from the beginning of December to the end of February. During a transitional period (mostly October and April) a lower Class must be met. In the Scandinavian countries the Winter Diesel (Vinterdiesel) must meet Class 2 conditions. “Transneftoil” offer both types commonly known as Winter Diesel (Winterdiesel, diesel d’hiver) and Arctic Diesel (Polardiesel, diesel polaires).

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